Russian Historical Science: Ten Years Later



Zh. V. Kovalevskaya R. V. Manekin






а In most historical and historical-philosophical research, which are developed in XX century the term "mentality" is used. However the clear definition of this term is unknown for us.

аа "I don't deny the achievements of humanitarian science. But is necessary to recognize that if we know the more and more things about man, then probably the essence of man la the less clear for us. The progress in special sciences at the same time accepts the probability of the simple answer. The growth of this knowledge makes doubtful the legality of the hope to have the single answer... (I9) At the attempts to find the answers at the questions in which they are interested in scientists, philosophers, thinkers created the great number of branches in psychology, history, anthropology philosophy, philosophy of history and other humanitarian sciences. Without pretending to write a full survey we touch upon some of these branches that are important for our theme (see fig. 1 and commentary to it).

аа During the last time at least in the Soviet historiography a lot of works on the mentality problem are published. Speaking on mentality it is necessary a once to divide the conception of collective (national, social etc.)а mentality and individual one. The question on terms remains debatable. Among the investigations of this branch it is necessary to pick out the group of works that are devoted to studying of mentality by means of quantitative methods. The most of them (2, 4-6, 12, 15) are touched to the problems of collective mentality and now it is only marked the approach to the problem of individual mentality investigations (3, 10, 11). There is a problem to create the general categorical apparatus that could be effectively used in different branches of investigations, defined clearly the sphere of competence of every branch from one hand and could facilitate the use of mathematical methods in humanitarian researches on the other hand.

ааа The aim of given paper is to elaborate the methodological base of individual mentality investigations by means of quantitative methods. By investigating mentality it is necessary to outline that conception of mentality is complex and includes the following levels:

- psycho-physical; there is a hypothesis according to which the psycho-physical processes have the holistic character, so they can't be adequately expressed by any of models which are based on the ideas of traditional science (18)

- psychic;

- cultural-historical;

- spiritual-religious and cosmic levels.

аа Besides the hierarchical structure of mentality we use the conception of static and dynamic characteristics of mentality. As the size of this paper is limited we have no possibility to make clear in details every of these levels and characters, so we give the structures of first two levels (static and dynamic aspects). Model of person psychic structure according to K. G. Jung is described in (1) and it is given in fig. 2 (see fig. 2 and commentary to it).

а The dynamic aspect of mentality is given in fig. 3 (see fig. 3 and commentary to it).

аа The simple model of cosmic level according to R. Steiner (without commentary) is given in fig. 4.

Considering cultural-historical level of mentality as the most accessible for quantification we analyze the following sub-levels of given stratum, which are marked as 3. 1 and 5-2 in figure 3. We are based on the conception that person is largely influenced by the totality of the collective unconsciousness strata that are given in the dynamics of historical process. By such approach the conception of person includes as its own part the group mentality in historical context (don't disturb with conception of collective mentality - see the works of N. A. Berdtaev about it).

аа Under the group mentality in the historical context we understand reflection of total culture-historical social and national experience that is refracted in the "less of consciousness" of certain person.

а For analysis of this experience we mark the following cultural- historical factors, which we consider in synchronic and diachronic aspects:

1) the material factors of life mode (economic, ethnographic and the archeological data);

2) the behavioural stereotypes (ethnographic and psychological data);

3) emotional perception of the world (psychological data and data of different kinds of arts);

4) the art perception of the world (ethnographical and artistic data, data of art);

5) linguistics factors;

6) rational perception of the world;

7) the factors of the world outlook.

аа For quantification analysis from our point of view the factors of the 4-th and 6-th groups are the most suitable. Indirect idea about the factors in particular, about factor N. 7, we shall get from results of previous factor analysis.

а Following Collingwood we suppose that we can judge about mentality of person in historical context according to the totality of his manifestations (pragmatic and spiritual) into external world. The investigator shouldn't forget about the large part of mental material that is hidden and doesn't give evident manifestation (see fig. 2. 3).

а As in every individual mentality for certain there is a rational element in this case we propose to investigate the mentality by means of well-known mathematical methods. At the present time in historical science there are many quantification methods: correlation, cluster, factor, regression analysis, content-analysis. As in our case the analysis of given material content must precede by the other forms of analysis and only on the base of general concept system we can divide the following elements (13), so the most adequate method in this case we suppose the content-analysis which allows to build the general concept system. We suppose that other quantification methods we must use in the future.

а The term "content-analysis" from our point of view means the determination and account of the most essential and steady characteristics of mentality. The peculiarity of the investigation of rational component of mentality is that in text it manifests itself not only and not rather by term but by idea that is expressed by means of phrase, sentence and group of sentences.

а The results and interpretations of results of content-analysis are directly connected with qualitative definition of primary indicators.

In this paper we propose aааа method of individual mentality analysis that is based on the investigation of philosophical texts. This limit in the selection of the material is defined the next step: the selection of the main trend in the creative of a given thinker. From the point of view of the mentality analysis the selection of a trend is manifested by the motive characteristics of person that are shown in fig. 2, 3. The selection of the main trend in some way determines the categorial apparatus of the given branch of philosophy and determines the certain multitude of indicators from which we may select. As the selection of indicators is not exhausted by such way and the further works of selection can't be algorithm strictly we propose the following recommendations in order to make the investigation more objective:

1) the investigation and analysis of thinkerТs texts, cultural and historical conditions of time, environment and country ("chronotop" according to Bahtin) where and when the object of investigation lived);

2) studying the biography (according to the materials of contemporaries and modern investigators of this problem - critical investigation);

3) analysis of sources (according to well-known methods);

4) studying ofа historicalа and culturalа context (and also in its geographicalа aspect);

5) the profound knowledge ofа language realities of the epoch.

Evenа at the accounting of these recommendationsа there are a. great number of uncertainty in the selection of the rest of indicators.

Following the principle of dialogue betweenа two cultures (see the works of M. M. Bahtin) we propose toа continueа the process of indicator selection on the base of the pointа ofа clear investigator's position in context of a gives branch ofа philosophy. We can make the process of indicator selectionа more objective on the base of comparable study of research literature on question and fixation of the atributation moment in source context (11).ааа The following level of objectivation is reached by means of entering of general categories on the base of clear expressed conceptual system. Analysis of logical connections in the created conceptual system can be done on the base of one of logic systems: predicate logic, modal, pseudo-physical, multi-meaning, associative logic (14). It is necessary to outline that the investigators with profound mathematical knowledge may use the multi-meaning logics.

ааа According to the previous text authors propose the program of content-analysis that performs the following functions:

1) input the user's text or group of texts and its editing with the help of well-known text screen editors for IBP PC/XT (AT) - NORTON, MultiEdltor, Word Professional etc.;

2) input of indicators dictionary, which can be changed during the work on the texts. We can use both vocabulary of key words that includes the terms and steady phrases (e. g. greatness, greediness, space-time, continuum etc) and the more wide concepts, which are expressed by means of a sentence or a group of sentences. In the last case we can't use the vocabulary. It is necessary to code the text on levels of mental units (thoughts), input of the coded text table and dictionary of mental units for definition of binary oppositions. In the text and emotionally colored indicators;

3) the definition of indicators connection table. We must defy both basic connection table and its probable modifications (17);

4) quantitative analysis of the text and output of the indicators relation graph (to printer / screen);

5) the frequency characteristics of any indicator on desire of user (from certain indicator's menu);

6) correlation analysis of text and output of the graph of steady categories on the base of analytical data;

7)а cluster analysis.а



1. Authors considered the works of E. Wilson "Socioecology: the new synthesis", G. M. Smith, K. Lorens, N. Tinbergen, C. J. Lumsden.

2. Authors considered works of historical anthropology school (Le Goff, Dubis, M. Blok). 3. Authors considered theoretical works about language (V. V. Nalomov), works of V. V. Ivanov, V. N. Toporov, D. de Sossur.

4. Authors considered the works of ethnosemiotlcs and ethic specifics of culture (16). 5. Authors considered the works of existential conception of man (works of K. Jaspers, M. Heidegger, G. Marcel, J. -P. Sartre, └. Camus, N. A. Berdiaev, S. Kierkegard).

6. Authors considered the works of A. Gehlen, E. Rothacker, M. Lendmann, H. -B. Hengstenberg, E. Husserl, E. Cassirer.

7. Authors considered the works of L. N. Gumilev about athnogenesis.

8. Authors considered the works of O. Schpengler, A. Toinby, N. A. Berdiaev, B. Groce, R. Collingwood, M. Blok.

9. Authors considered the works of psychic, consciousness, language modeling, the creation of artificial intelligence system (8),

10. Authors considered the works of Yu. M. Lotman about sign systems.

11. Authors considered the works of Mounier and his school, the works of psychoanalysisа (Z. Freud, A. Adler, W. Reich), the works on analytical psychology (K. G. Jung, I. Jakobi), cognition psychologyа (behaviourists works, geschtalt-psychlogists works, the works of K. Levin).

12. Authors considered the works of extrasensory perception (ESP) and psycho-synthesis and also theoretical works of altered states of consciousnessа (R. G. Jahn, G. T. Puthoff, R. Treg etc).



1.        Mind (Psych-Germ) is the platitude of all psychic process that are registered by the observation of certain individual person including the manifestations of ёollective subconsiousness and generally all breaks of the out Ч of Ч personal forces into the personal psychic (1).

2.        Soul (Seele-Germ. ) is limited functional complex which is strictly organized around "1".

3.        I (Ich-Germ. ) is generalized conception for defining Super-I (super Ego - lat. ), Consciousness (Ego - lat. ) and Subconsciousness (Id - lat. ).

аааа 3. 1. Selfity (das Selbst - Germ. ) is a central archetype, the image of arranged wholeness. "The Self is a value that refers to conscious but unconscious Psyche and that is why it is as person which by the way we are" (20).

3.2. Mask is an connection between "I" and objects of the external life (only social - das Mann, according to Heidegger). "There is a danger to become identical to own Mask, e. g. when professor indents' himself with his chair and tenor - with his voice... The Mask is that what really isn't, but what he and other people think about this man" (20).

3.3. "Shadow - is... that hidden forced out defective and criminal person which reaches to the world of beast ancestors by his last branches and by such way covers all the historical aspects of of unconsciousness" (21).


аSpeaking of collective unconsciousness Jung wrote: "Mind of Man is a mushroom, collective unconsciousness are of it" (21).


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Transl. by Zh.V.Kovalevskaya.